I would say that it depends on the teacher, and it depends on what kind of advice the student is seeking. I know that "it depends" is probably the most annoying answer ever haha, but I think it's true in this case. I know some teachers who are really approachable and cool, and I can totally see them enjoying helping a student out, and giving advice. My English teacher, for example, is probably the coolest guy ever, and really cares about his students. He has strong opinions, and I know he would totally be a "go-to" person for advice. On the other hand, there are definitely teachers out there who would probably be uncomfortable with that.
It depends on the teacher. My RE teacher loves teaching and his students so he'll be more than happy to give advice. However, my English teacher comes across as arrogant and is more likely to give heavy sarcasm rather than advice to people who need it. If you feel confident talking to them then they should be able to give advice.
Many teachers are willing and enjoy helping their students inside and out of the classroom. I know many of my teachers from high school would have given me advice if I was seeking it. As long as you feel comfortable asking for advice, I'm sure they will respond as they feel appropriate.
If they have time and are really opinionated than most of the time, yes
i think some of them do and some of them maybe not
Depends on the teacher mainly