scientificly, white absorbs the least amount of heat because it really is not a color, black absorbs the most amount of heat because its a mix of all colors, the colors are on a scale from white to black the lighter you go, the cooler it will be (not by much but still enough) also if you use lighter colors the space feels more open and airy. the darker you go the warmer it will get, but think about old mansions how stuffy they feel, onder why? most/all the walls are painted the dark and it makes the room seem stuffier.
I haven't seen any studies on how affects air circulation. But here is some tips on color. Pure colors impinge on the persons psyche. If in a room too long the color will effect the mood of the person. All colors do this. Shades, dark colors, take away the learning ability when studying, decrease intelligence. Tints, pastels, induce learning, increase intelligence. All colors have a positive side and a negative side. Such as: Red positive, attracts, one is aggressive. Red negative, anger, get mad.
The color doesn't, but the type of paint affects the air. Opt for a low or no VOC paint! VOC stands for Volatile Organic Compound, and is extremely dangerous because it's organic, meaning our body reacts with it, thinking it's natural. Pretty much everything has VOCs in it; "new carpet" smell is from fumigating VOCs, as well as all air fresheners, markers, cleaning supplies, even microwavable popcorn, and of course, paint is also in this category unless otherwise specified!
Not enough that you would ever notice, darker paints seem to absorb more heat, and heated or cooled surfaces do effect air flow, but you would never notice this.
Dark paints absorb heat (which is bad) White colour doesn't. That's why white is normally used in houses.