I'm currently studying evolution at school, and I'm really curious as to how races have 'evolved' or 'mutated' etc. For example, Darwin's finches beaks changed due to the geographical position in the world. Is the geographical position of humans also a influencing our appearance? Eg. Asians with slanty eyes, people with black skin, people with white skin, blonde and blue eyed europeans, etc. Seeing as we all have nearly exactly the same make up, are race differences simply a mutation that continued? Was there one standard coloured/shaped human in the beginning of time?
You can trace the why haplotype mutationally in Africa about 150,000 years ago... correlating with the oldest races in Africa... bushmen being one example... the why haplotypes [A][B] being indigenous to the continent... out of Africa and into lands in and around the Indian Ocean and Pacific Rim about 80,000 years ago... why haplotypes [C][D] spreading out into the Indian subcontinent... Melanesia... Australia... and even represented in Japan by the Ainu people. Brother group to [C][D]...groups [E][F] stayed in the Middle East... [E] moved back into Africa giving rise to modern African races while [F] remained in the middle east and was the father group to why haplotype groups [G][H][I][J][K]... [J] is represented by Semitic groups in the modern Middle East... [H] is represented in the Dravidian populations of India... [I] as the neolithic expanse into Europe around 15,000 years ago... not to be confused with paleolithic Europeans of why haplotype [R] who made it into Europe earlier but stemming from groups that spent some time in Central Asia. [I] is represented mostly in Central Europe... into Scandinavia. [K] moved into central asia... and is still found in the fomer USSR satellite nations... [K] was the father to groups [L][M][N][O][P]... [L][M][N] remained in and around Central Asia into India... while [O] moved further east into mainland China... and into the Pacific Islands. why haplotype group [P] travelled into the northern portions of Central Asia... and gave rise to groups [Q][R]. [Q] moved into Siberia... and eventually crossed the Bering Strait into North America... then South America about 10,000 years ago. [R] moved west... into Europe and split into two subgroups... R1a and R1b... R1a populated Eastern Europe while R1a populated Western Europe about 20,000 years ago... and a small population following the arctic circle made it into eastern North America around 15,000 years ago. The seafaring [C] group also made it to the new world at some point... entering from the Pacific into South America.
This is just the Male lineage of humanity... the mitochondrial DNA evidence suggests that the female lines were older and more stagnant than the male counterparts... and we are a combination of the male and female lines... and although older male lines were generally routed by newer lines into an area... some descendants of the older lines remain. Virtually everyone has a mixture of the male lines in their ancestry... and female... and environmental conditions shaped the way we look. People in areas of Europe where sunlight was less direct developed pale skin in order to make the needed vitamin D from the sunlight. Light hair probably developed in order to allow for more light entering the eyes when sight was essential for hunting a food source. Shorter limbs and added fat is essential for containing body heat... so Asian people adapted these traits to survive the more harsh environment... Africans and races that remained in the tropical areas needed to release excess heat... so longer limbs... and body fat being stored only in certain areas of the body resulted.
This just illustrates the point where the different lines split that would at least in part be responsible for the different races developing. Because the lines split a long time ago does not suggest that one race is older than another... the mutation rate would have continued in each line... this only indicates the "relation" of one race to another... so we can see that Western Europeans are more closely related to a big portion of the Native American gene pool than any other completely seperate race.
The mitochondrial DNA differing enroute from that of the Y-haplotype DNA is explained in theory thusly: when a conquering group of competing males took over a region... the majority of the disparate male inhabitants of a certain age were annhilated... the vanquished women were incorporated into the conquering group... this explains the discrepancy in age and number of accompaning mitochondrial DNA with the Y-haplotype DNA.
I never meant to discount the mitochondrial DNA... but it is much more difficult to trace generationally. The Y-haplotype following the western tradition of a male heir keeping his fathers name means that at least the most recent test of the Y-haplotype diaspora theory is easier to verify.
The theory is also supported by its similarity to the Hindu Veda's description of ancient eastern migration.
Actually riona that is exactly what they are called, mutations. Variations from one generation to the next.
Using the finches as an example their beaks would change shape because of mutations, it begins with some birds born with a mutation that allows them to eat a certain food more efficiently. If the birds are successful enough to live they pass on this mutation to the next generation. With the next generation this goes on again, the ones with the most successful beak designs survive and passes on the gene for that beak, and this continues until the species dies out.
It can eventually lead to different species developing (even with different plumage and physical attributes).
" there isn't proof"
There is plently of proof, go to a museum! You can actually SEE evolution You can SEE the evolution into mammals Fossils show us the journey of life.
What do you think happened then, do you believe in the creation?? Yes, that blissfully ignorant theory that every thing was just 'pooffed' into existance does seem more likely. There is so much proof of that. I know you never said you believed in that, but that is a theory. Evolution is real.
Different races evolved due to where we live, we needed to adapt to the environment in order for survival, thats where it came from dagnuu, the different levels of sun, oxygen in the air, elevation.
The theory of evolution is just that; a theory. There really isn't solidified evidence of where we came from "in the beginning." Although, we did change our outwardly appearance to adapt to certain types of conditions, but science hasn't proven from what that adaptation has came from. Elevated melanin in the skin causes the skin to be darker, what gave humans that melanin in the first place to adapt from hi levels of UV rays. Remember, it's all theory. You can come up with your own theory if you feel it is relevant to what you are studying. If you prove that theory, it becomes a dissertation.
yes...and it is a mutation...for example, africa is very arid, a lot of sunlight, heat, etc. eventually one of the humans living in africa had a skin pigment (melanin) mutation, and that human survived because of it (less sunburn, no melanoma,etc) and since he/she survived, he had the chance to mate, thus allowing the melanin mutation to carry on. same thing with other races, just different mutations and adaptions.
My theories (in all honesty/no joking whatsoever):
Black people are black because, as slaves, they were forced to work outside. Somehow this ended up being hereditary. White people are white for the most part because they sat around, probably indoors where the light could not get to them, thus resulting in their lack of a tan. I guess it's sunny in Asia?
I don't know. It's ridiculous, really.
I dont agree with miscegenymiser's answer. It seems way too certain and all based on the Y chromosome. It is the mitochondria DNA that holds the clue to the evolution of humans out of africa. I will try to follow your theory when I have time, but I do not buy it right now because of lack of data support from mitochondria DNA.
Ok that's fine, but you didn't need to give a full length spiel about it. I haven't studied much about it, I'm only fourteen. And mmeyers, the only way it could make you athiest is if you took the bible too literally, as so many people do. your choice though, I don't really give a damn what you believe.
I wouldn't call it "mutation" but yes, they are all adaptations to where the people are from. All animals have to adapt to their evironment in order to survive, and that includes us, though we also change our environment to suit us. And yes we evolved from one standard race at some point in time.
In my post... all instances of the word Why appearing before the word Haplotype should be read as Y as in the male haplotype.
The auto-editor function got the best of me.
goat11- I agree with you, only ignorant fools question evolution at this day and age.
evolution made me athiest