What time period was chamber music?
There really isn't a time period for chamber music. It depends on the composer of the piece you're playing. If you're playing a Baroque piece, it's most likely from the Baroque era. If you're playing something from Bartok, Debussy, or Shostakovitch, then you're likely playing something 20th/21st century. It depends on the piece.
It's been around since the middle ages but I think the main periods were baroque chamber music (bach and handel, from about 1600 to 1750) and then classical chamber music (mozart, haydn, from 1750 to 1850). I think it was more popular in the classical period with a lot of string quartets.
Yeah I don't think you would really associate it with time periods.