I have science homework to do and i do not have a clue about mutations. Can someone tell me what mutations of dieases are to get me started please? I have tried looking but cant find and information about it.
OK... most diseases are caused by viruses and by bacteria.
Those viruses and bacteria proliferate inside the body. They reproduce. Now in every reproduction, there is a possibility that the genes aren't copied exactly from the parent organism. But they "mutate", that is, become different. Many mutant organisms will be weaker than the parent organism. But a few will be stronger. Or more fit to survive and reproduce.
If that happens and the mutant virus or mutant bacteria reproduces a lot, there will be a new breed of viruses/bacteria. It might be more contagious that the original. Or more resistant to antibiotics. Or just different in its surface structure. Often, the medicaments that are known to cure a disease will fail to cure the mutant of a disease.
There's one of the dangers of overusing /wrongly using antibiotics... You have a patient with a bacterial infection (that can be cured with antibiotics). The patient gets antibiotics. But doesn't take them long enough. So the antibiotics kill all the bacteria that are easy to kill. And then the more resistant ones survive. But they are few. But as the patient feels healthy, he stops taking the meds. Now the resistant bacteria have a lot of space to reproduce. And they do. After that the patient has a fall-back with the same disease, but the antibiotics will not help at all. The same happens when unnecessarily overusing disinfection agents. The tough germs survive and come back later. And bring their family.
Diseases that have other causes than living things (for example auto-immune diseases, metabolism disease and malnutrition diseases) do not have mutant forms.
In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication.They can also be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation. Mutation can result in several different types of change in sequences;(DNA) these can either have no effect, alter the product of a gene, or prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely. Studies in the fly Drosophila melanogaster suggest that if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, this will probably be harmful, with about 70 percent of these mutations having damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or weakly beneficial. Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on genes, organisms have mechanisms such as DNA repair to remove mutations. Viruses that use RNA as their genetic material have rapid mutation rates, which can be an advantage since these viruses will evolve constantly and rapidly, and thus evade the defensive responses of e.g. the human immune system.
You are very welcome. :-) Hope this gets you a good grade.
Thank you very mucho!! :D