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Pre-Columbian refers to the "western hemisphere" (North and South America) prior to its so-called discovery by Europeans in the voyages led by Christopher Columbus. Colonial times in begin in any given place when it is taken and governed as a possession by another country, not as an integral part of the realm (like in an empire), but as a foreign possession, generally for the purpose of extracting wealth from it. They end when the people of that place achieve political independence in their own land. Overall, the colonial era of history extends from the time of Columbus (when European powers first began to claim territories far removed from their own homeland) through the first few decades after World War II, when most of the remaining colonies became independent.
Nowadays we have corporate colonialism... It's Modern! :D
Often called "neo-colonialism."