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What distinguishes something good from bad?

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What makes something moral and immoral(more)? What makes something good and something bad? Now, a lot of people say good/bad is subjective. Then how are the laws which we live by and govern us decided upon? Most people will say it is bad, or wrong if it hurts someone. What if a person doesn't have the personal morale that hurting a person is bad? ie: to some hitting a child is ok, to some it is absolutely inhumane. Or perhaps a psychopath, one who doesn't have that sort of a conscience, or morale, who's to say what he does is wrong? How is it distinguished?

A philosopher, Aristotle had stated that the "good" is the potential of the human race which is special to and separate from animals and other species.

A hedonist would say the ultimate good is finding and obtaining physical pleasure (including happiness) and pain (in any form) is bad.

Immanuel Kant, another philosopher says good is from good intent where one does what they are supposed to do, not from fear of negative consequences when they don't.

What are your thoughts?