When was the jacket invented? When were hoods and zippers put on jackets?
Probably as soon as a cave man noticed that he stayed warmer wearing a fur than without one--hoods probably followed soon after. (Actually might have been a skinned animal head)
Zippers however weren't invented until the mid 1800's when Elias Howe got a patent for an Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure. Almost a lifetime later, (1913) the modern zipper was patented by Gideon Sundback.
Quoting from the following link: The history of the specific garment began in the 1930s, but historical precedent dates the style and form of the hoodie back to the Middle Ages. The formal wear for Catholic monks included a cowl, a long, decorative hood worn in addition to the standard tunic or robes.