Children learn what they live. Meaning that they start out pretty much as a clean slate. What they see around them teaches them what works and what doesn't. A lot of the times it is the adults who must change their behaviours. After all this is where the child learned their behaviours. So a child cannot manipulate someone who cannot be manipulated...right! When a parent says no with an explanation then it stops there. Never argue or bargain with a child. As the child gets older you can compromise but teaching a child no means no is the key. It is never debated and you never argue with a child...that is wrong on many levels. So looking at your own behaviours will give you a lot of insight as to why the child is acting they way they are.
This is a tough one. If you're looking at a narcissistic type of personality or antisocial personality, well I really dont know. But, a lot of times manipulation comes from a sense of desperation. It's how they survive. So, it's simple. You reward good behavior and you punish bad behavior. You act in a consistent way so they know that you are going to be a positive and consistent presence in their life. You teach them prosocial behaviors such as sharing and giving (depending on how old the child is, you can have them volunteer their time or go with you while you volunteer). The idea is to add positives that contradict the negatives. So if the child is being completely selfless it goes against the impulse to be manipulative which is completely selfish.
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