Absolutely. Nearly everything we learn is based on observing cause and effect. We are so good at recognizing patterns that we even see them when they are not there (seeing pictures in clouds, Jesus or Virgin Mary on tortillas, Elvis in sweat stains, etc.). Superstitions are based on mistakenly thinking something causes an effect when it has nothing to do with it.
Broken mirrors, the number 13, walking under ladders, our paths being crossed by black cats, and stepping on cracks on sidewalks are all common superstitions. Many superstitions go back centuries and people today are long removed from the religions and theories behind them.